Glossary of Terms:

3:2 Pulldown: The formula used to convert 24-frames per second of film to 30-frames per second of video by repeating frames in a specific pattern.

4:2:2: A digital video sampling ratio for component digital video. For every four (4) luminance samples, there are two (2) samples of each color channel.

4:4:4: A digital video sampling ratio with twice the color sampling of 4:2:2.

4K: A film image scanned into a computer file at a resolution of 4096 horizontal pixels per line.

5.1 Audio: An arrangement of five (5) audio channels (left; center; right; left-surround; right-surround) and one (1) sub-woofer channel also referred to as LFE. 6 audio channels total.

16x9: A wide-screen format in which the aspect ratio of the screen is 16 units wide by 9 units high (aka 1.78:1) as opposed to the 4x3 (1.33:1) of conventional, older television.

ADR: Automatic Dialogue Replacement. Recording or re-recording dialogue where the production sound is unstable or obscured. Also referred to as “looping.”

Anamorphic: A film image horizontally compressed by a special lens to fit the width of a standard Academy ratio film frame then expanded during projection to its normal width and appearance on the screen. The vertical axis is not disturbed during this process.

Anamorphic Video: Horizontally compresses a 16x9 image into a 4x3 image area. If you view the raw picture the characters will be too tall and thin. It is designed to fill a 16x9 image area by “unsqueezing” the X axis at the time of viewing. This operation is supposed to be transparent to the user, but is frequently misunderstood and used incorrectly resulting in a distorted image.

Artifacts: Refers to video blemishes, noise or any physical interruption of the video image.

Answer Print: The first film print combining picture and sound in release form offered by the film processing laboratory to the producer for acceptance.

Aspect Ratio: The ratio of the width of a picture to the height.

Broadcast Quality: Footage that meets the high technical standards for broadcast or cablecast. Quality that does not meet this standard is referred to as "reference quality".

Check Print: First film print used to check color corrections.

Color Bars: A video test signal widely used for system and monitor set-up. The test signal typically contains eight (8) basic colors (white; yellow; cyan; magenta; blue; black). Bars have evolved over the years and sometimes include other test patterns like ramps and gradients. There are numerous styles including SMPTE 219 introduced in 2002.

Color-Correction: Alteration of colored objects or images, sometimes referred to as Color Grading.

DA-88: A Tascam-branded digital audio tape recording & playback system using the 8 mm video format. 8 audio channels, plus timecode.

Dailies: Picture and sound work prints of a day’s shooting without regard to color balance. They are produced so the best takes can be selected.

DAT: An acronym for "Digital Audio Tape". A digital audio recording & playback system with a signal quality surpassing that of the Compact Disc (CD). 2 audio channels available with timecode, but most commonly without.

D.I.: see Digital Intermediate

Digital Intermediate: (typically abbreviated to D.I.) describes the process of digitizing film images and manipulating color and other characteristics to change the look. It is usually the final creative adjustment to a movie before distribution in theaters. It is also distinguished from the telecine process in which film is scanned and color is manipulated but only intended for video and television distribution. A digital intermediate is also customarily done at higher resolution and with greater color fidelity than telecine transfers and utilizes only digital tools (no analog video devices).

Drop Frame: System of timecode that ‘drops’ numbers in a specific pattern in order to be in-sync with real time, normally used in broadcast television.

EDL: An acronym for "Edit Decision List". A list of a video production's edit points. It is a record of all edit decisions made for a program in the form of a generic text file. This information is used to reassemble the project at a later date. It contains the tapes used and the timecoded locations for the shots.

Firewire: A special high-speed bus standard capable of over 100 Mbits/second sustained data rate. Also known as IEEE P1394.

FTP: An acronym for "File Transfer Protocol". It allows users to transfer files over a TCP/IP network.

Gray Scale: A chart with varying shades of gray which is photographed during production and used by the film processing lab to color correct film.

HD: An acronym for "High Definition".

D-5: A recording deck (made by Panasonic) capable of 4:2:2 digital video, 8 audio tracks plus timecode. A standard for the industry and in heavy use since approximately 1994.

HDCam: A recording deck (made by Sony) capable of 4:2:2 digital video, 4 audio tracks plus timecode. This format is now considered sub-standard for HD mastering. Introduced in 1997, it is the predecessor to the more powerful HDCamSR.

HDCamSR: A recording deck (made by Sony) capable of 4:2:2 & 4:4:4 digital video, 12 audio tracks plus timecode. The gold standard for the industry in 2010, superior in quality and capability to the D5, in heavy use since approximately 2003. This deck is the successor to HDCam.

High-Definition Image: 1920x1080 pixels or 1270x720 pixels.

Interlaced: A display system in which two (2) interleaved fields are used to create one (1) frame. The number of field is equal to one-half of the number of frames. An ingenious form of compression that came with early television and remains today.

Internegative: A duplicating film stock that turns into negative when printed from a positive print. It is used as a source for interpostive prints.

Interpositive: Color master positive printed from the original negative, used for making duplicate negatives. These are used to manufacture release prints.

IP: An acronym for "Internet Protocol". The network layer protocol for the internet protocol suite.

I/O: This stands for "Input/Output". This term is used in situations where data is transferred to and/or from a system or devices.

Jump Cut: Transition between two scenes which makes the subject appear to "jump". A cutaway shot remedies this alignment situation.

Key: A signal that can electronically "cut a hole" in a video picture to allow for the insertion of other elements.

Keycode Number: Kodak’s machine-readable key numbers that include a 10-digit key number, identification code, film code and off-set in perforations.

Layback: Transferring the finished audio track back to the master video tape.

Letterbox: When a wide-screen image is projected onto a television screen, a space is left on the top and bottom of the screen.

Matte: The black bars found at the top and bottom of the picture when a wide-screen format is projected on a television set, also known as ‘letterbox’.

Mixing: Combining all sound tracks onto a single master source.

MPEG: An acronym for "Moving Picture Experts Group". Standards designed for the handling of compressed moving images.

Noise Reduction: Electronic reduction of observable grain in the picture.

Non-Drop Frame: System of timecode that retains all frame numbers in chronological order. Does not equal real time (differs by approx 3 seconds every hour). This problem is solved using Drop-Frame timecode.

NTSC: NTSC is an acronym for "National Television System Committee". It is the standard for broadcast color television in the United States Canada, Central America and Japan. NTSC image format is 4X3 aspect ratio; 525 horizontal lines; 60 Hz and 4 MHz bandwidth with a total 6 MHz video channel width.

Off-Line Editing: Creative editing that is typically done at low resolution. Often there are multiple version as the approval process takes place. The edit will eventually be used to produce an edit decision list (EDL) which is used to assemble the program at a later date, usually at a higher resolution for the final delivery. (aka Rough Cut)

PAL: An acronym for "Phase Alternating Line". It is a composite color standard used in many parts of the world including most European countries. The format consists of 625 scan lines of resolution and runs at 25 frames per second. The phase alternation makes the signal less susceptible to distortion.

Pixel: The digital representation of the smallest area of a television capable of being delineated by the bit stream. The smaller and closer together the pixels, the higher the picture resolution.

Post Production: All production work performed after the raw video footage and audio elements have been captured. Editing, titles, special effects insertion image enhancement and audio mixing are done during post production.

Raw Stock: Unexposed film or blank tape.

Release Print: Numerous duplicate prints of a subject made for general theater release. It is printed from an internegative.

RGB: The basic parallel component set (red; green; blue) in which a signal is used for each primary color. May also be referred to as "GBR", the mechanical sequence of the connectors in the SMPTE interconnect standard.

Rough Cut: Assembly of edited shots prior to final edit. (aka Offline Edit)

SDI: An acronym for "Serial Digital Interface". It is a standard based on 270 Mbps transfer rate. It is a 10-bit interface for both component and composite digital video with four (4) channels of embedded digital audio. It uses 75-Ohm BNC connectors and coaxial cable and can transmit signal over 600 feet.

SMPTE: Acronym for "Society of Motion Picture & Television Engineers". This group establishes industry technical standards.

Standard Definition: Conventional 4x3 television, predecessor to High Definition.

Sweetening: The final combining and enhancing of a video program's audio tracks.

Squeeze: A change in the aspect ratio as a form of compression. “Anamorphic” is another way to express, generally the horizontal axis is compressed and destined to be restored to it’s original aspect ratio during final viewing either electronically or by using a special lens.

Telecine: The process of transferring film to video tape.

TIFF: An acronym for "Tag Image File Format". It is the standard file format for high-resolution bit-mapped graphics. TIFF files may be compressed or uncompressed.

Timecode: A system for numbering video frames where a code denoting hours/minutes/seconds/frames is assigned to each frame. In North America there are 2 types, Drop Frame and Non-Drop Frame Timecode.

Timeline: The graphic representation of a program displayed in the sequencer window.

USB: An abbreviation for "Universal Serial Bus".

VITC: An acronym for "Vertical Interval Time Code". A popular method for recording timecode on videotape. A timecode address for each video frame is inserted in the vertical interval of the video signal, where it is invisible on-screen yet easily retrieved.

Window Dub: Copies of videotape with visable timecode display. Hours, minutes, seconds and frames appear on the recorded image.

Work Print: Any picture or sound track print, intended as a guide in the editing process to establish the finished version of a film, television show or movie trailer.


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